PLANT OMICS


Path analysis and canonical variables of intervarietal maize hybrids

Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Giordano Gelain Conte, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Ritieli Baptista Mambrin, Maicon Nardino, Antonio Costa de Oliveira, Luciano Carlos da Maia, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the cereal most produced in the world, due to its wide scope and utilization in human and animal diet. This study aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of intervarietal maize hybrids, as well as the linear associations, interrelations of cause and effect, and the genotypes dispersion through canonical variates. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year of 2014/2015. The crosses that originated the hybrids were carried out on the growing season of 2013/2014 and hybrids evaluated on 2014/2015. The hybrids were arranged in randomized blocks, being 13 treatments with five repetitions. The measured characters were: plant height, spike insertion height, stem diameter, spike diameter, spike length, spike mass, number of rows of grains per spike, number of grains per row, cob diameter, cob mass, spike grains mass, mass of a thousand grains, grain length and grain yield. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and mean values compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. The Pearson’s linear correlation analysis and path analysis were performed using grain yield as a dependent character. Furthermore, the analysis of canonical variables was carried out. The hybrid H5: G3 X G4 revealed higher grain yield, spike grains mass, number of grains per row and spike diameter. Grain yield of intervarietal hybrids presented positive correlations with the traits such as stem diameter, spike diameter, spike length, number of grains per row, mass of a thousand grains, grain length and spike grains mass. Spike diameter and spike length presented higher direct effects on grain yield of intervarietal hybrids. The canonical variates revealed the formation of five phenotypically distinct groups of intervarietal hybrids.

Pages 1-8 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt848
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Economic efficiency and soybean yield due to the use of different fungicide combinations

Daniel Franke Knebel, Diecson Ruy Oroslin da Silva, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Lucian Alex dos Santos, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Dionei Schmidt Muraro, Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Antonio David Bortoluzzi da Silva, Francine Lautenchleger, João Roberto Pimentel, Cristian Troyjack, Francisco Amaral Villela, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná Campus Dois Vizinhos, PR, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brazil


Abstract
In Brazil, Asian rust is the main disease that affects the soybean crop, which is responsible for the great inventiveness of financial resources with fungicides to control this pathogen. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain yield and economic viability of the different combinations of fungicides used in the soybean crop. The experiment was conducted in the 2014/2015 agricultural year in the experimental field located in the municipality of Campo Novo-RS, Brazil. The treatments used correspond to 15 combinations of fungicides, and these were applied at different times during the soybean cycle. The characters measured weremass of 1000 seeds, grain yield, gross income, fungicide cost, total cost, net income, income gain and profitability. The grain yield of soybeans was reduced by 35% due to the absence of fungicide applications. Combinations of fungicides that provide the highest yields and profitability for soybean are based on the use of different active principles such asstrobilurins and carboxamides.

Pages 9-14 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1156
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Proteome of germinating and dormant axillary buds of sugarcane and analysis of sprouting-related proteins

Mariana Mancini Benez, Rone Charles Maranho, Gustavo Barizon Maranho, Adeline Neiverth, Marise Fonseca dos Santos, Ana Lúcia de Oliveira Carvalho, Adriana Gonela, Claudete Aparecida Mangolin, Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado*

Postgraduate program in Agronomy, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil
Department of Biosciences, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Palotina PR Brazil
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Unit, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil
Department of Agronomy, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil
Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil

Abstract
The germination potential of the axillary buds is crucial for the installation of new sugarcane crop and is highly relevant for the maintenance of the crop during the regrowth cycles. In this way, 1-DE-UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF system of mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach evaluated total and differential proteome of germinating and dormant axillary buds of cultivar RB867515 in second ratoon. The current paper investigates whether differently expressed proteins can be detected in germinating axillary buds or not. The proteome of germinative and dormant axillary buds were obtained using TCA/acetone in triplicates with subsequent proteins and polypeptides pre-separation by SDS-PAGE and UPLC. Mass spectra were obtained via MS/MS and were confronted with Viridiplante mass spectra from NCBIprot, SwissProt and UniProtKB databases, using Mascot tool from Matrix Science. A total of 159 proteins were identified. In total, 46 proteins were exclusively detected in the germinating buds, while 41 proteins were exclusively reported in the dormant buds and 72 proteins were common in germinating and dormant buds. Different proteins, involved with biotic and abiotic stress, were detected at equivalent proportions in germinating (29.5%) and dormant (31.7%) buds, while contrasting proportions of proteins involved with energy metabolism were detected in germinating (22.7%) and dormant (12%) buds. Budding potential in the third cut seems to be determined by specific proteins related to energy metabolism and steps of the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites for shoot growth and development. Seven enzymes (Aconitase, Succinate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransgerase, Chacone synthase, Chalcone isomerase, and Monodehydroascorbate), one protein subunits (RuBisCo large subunit-binding protein) and one protein of Argonaute protein family (Tudor-Sn) supposedly involved with germinating potential of axillary buds and two enzymes (Hexokinase and Aldehyde dehydrogenase) supposedly involved with non-budding were highlighted.

Pages 15-24 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data | doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.p1371
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Phenotypic multicarter selection approach to predict genetics applied in the segregating generations F2, F3 and F4 of common black beans

Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Maurício Horbach Barbosa, Franciene Lautenchleger, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Suélen Matiasso Fachi, Daniel Boeno, Mayara Torres Mendonça, Henrique Eguilhor Rodrigues, Jainara Fresinghelli Netto, Francisco Amaral Vilella, TiagoPedó

Federal University of Pelotas, Capão Leão, RS-Brazil
Statet University of Maringá, Maringá, PR-Brazil
Federal University of Pampa, São Gabriel, RS - Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this work was to apply the phenotypic multicarter selection and predictive genetic for the attributes of the yield of common black bean seeds in the segregating generations F2, F3 and F4.The experimental design was augmented blocks, where the BRS Esplendor (BE), BRS Supremo (BS) and IPR Tiziu (IT) genotypes were used as controls arranged in four replicates, the other treatments were organized in a unique way in the experiment, the F2 segregating generation being represented by 36 common black bean populations, F3 segregating generation composed of 72 families and the F4 segregating generation formed by 44 families. The multicarter phenotypic index provided the simultaneous selection for the number and mass of seeds per plant, independent of the segregating generation of common black bean.Multicarter genetic variation is superior for the F3 segregating generation, with pronounced environmental effects on the F4 generation.The F4 segregating families express superiority to the genetic gain and magnitude of superior genotypes in relation to the commercial controls, where high genetic increase is exposed between the F3 to F4selection.The use of the phenotypic index expresses applicability to the selection of common black bean genotypes to increase seed yield.

Pages 25-30 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1516
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Study of the allelopathic activity of Garcinia pedunculata Roxb

Md. Mahfuzur Rob*, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan

Abstract
The allelopathic properties of plants can be used as an alternative weed control method to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides. Accordingly, the present study was carried out to determine the allelopathic activity of Garcinia pedunculata. Six different concentrations of aqueous methanol extracts of G. pedunculata fruit were prepared and used to determine their effect on the growth of eight test plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.), foxtail fescue (Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), and timothy (Phleum pratense L.). The test plants were grown in Petri dishes and after 48 h incubation, the length of the roots and shoots of the seedlings was measured and compared with control seedlings. Experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the data was performed using the SPSS statistical package, and the I50 values were measured from a regression equation. The extracts at each concentration significantly inhibited the shoot and root growth of all the test plants, except the concentration of 0.001 g dry weight equivalent extract/mL, compared with control. At a concentration of 0.3 g of dry weight equivalent extract/mL, the shoot and root growth of all the tested plants were completely inhibited, except the shoot growth of barnyard grass. The degree of inhibition increased in line with increased extract concentration. The shoots of alfalfa and the roots of barnyard grass were determined to be the most susceptible to the G. pedunculata extract based on the concentration of extract resulting in 50% (I50) growth inhibition of the test plants. These results suggest that G. pedunculata may have allelopathic potential and may possess allelochemicals. From our study, we can conclude that G. pedunculata could be developed as an eco-friendly weed control option.

Pages 31-36 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1773
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Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene, BnWRKY57, from Brassica napus

Fatemeh Atashi Shirazi, Hooman Razi*, Ali Niazi, Abbas Alemzadeh

Institute of Biotechnology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Abstract
WRKY transcription factors play important roles in regulation of various plant biological processes, including response to abiotic stresses. WRKY genes might be potential targets for transgenic breeding to enhance stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus). The present study aimed to clone and characterize WRKY57 (BnWRKY57) gene derived from B. napus and to analyze patterns of BnWRKY57 expression under drought and salt stresses in two B. napus cultivars with different levels of tolerance to drought and salt. The full-length coding region of BnWRKY57 gene with 882bp long (GenBank Accession Number: MG699908) was cloned and sequenced. BnWRKY57 gene encodes a hydrophilic polypeptide of 293 amino acids. It shared high homology with other known WRKY57s from Brassicaceae family. The promoter of BnWRKY57 gene contained cis regulatory elements involved in response to phytohormones, light, biotic and abiotic stresses suggesting this gene may play a role to modulate different signaling pathways. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that BnWRKY57 expression was responsive to drought and salt stresses. BnWRKY57 gene showed different expression patterns between leaves and roots and also between the B. napus cultivars under stress conditions. Overall, the findings suggest that BnWRKY57 gene may contribute to adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses in B. napus.

Pages 37-47 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1792
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Expression of Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) Epitopes of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Amir Ghaffar Shahriari*, Alireza Afsharifar, Maziar Habibi-Pirkoohi

Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Higher Education Center of Eghlid, Eghlid, Iran
Plant Virology Research Centre, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Research and technology institute of plant production, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

Abstract
Owing to their unique characteristics which combines the properties of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, microalgae have emerged as an ideal platform for heterologous production of recombinant proteins including subunit vaccines. In an attempt to develop recombinant vaccine against Newcastle Disease, an agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was carried out to express a chimeric gene construct including Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) epitopes of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Four tandem repeat of HN epitope with 96bp length followed by three tandem repeat of F epitope of NDV with 153bp length were used. Microalgal cells (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells harboring foreign gene construct and then transferred to selection medium. Single colonies representing putative transformation events were screened in selection medium enriched with kanamycin. PCR assay confirmed integration of F-HN sequence in microalgal nuclei. RT-PCR assay showed that the F-HN sequence was expressed in transformed colonies. Finally, translation of the foreign gene was confirmed by protein dot blotting, western blot and Elisa assay. The results of this experiment may contain both research and practical implications.

Pages 63-69 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1864
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Assessment of camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum) as new sources of bioactive compounds using GC-MS technique

Reham M. Mostafa, Heba S. Essawy*

Botany Department, Facukty of Science, Benha University, Egypt

Abstract
Alhagi maurorum (A. maurorum) is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family leguminasae, commonly known as camel thorn. This research was amid to identify the chemical compounds in the aerial part of A. maurorum using GC-mass analysis. Three solvents with different polarities were used for the extraction of chemical constituents (water, methanol and petroleum ether). The results of GC-MS analysis led to identification of various compounds. In total, thirty-nine compounds from petroleum ether extract, thirty-two compounds in methanolic extract and seventeen compounds in aqueous extract were identified. Majority of the identified compounds have been reported to possess many biological activities. Among them, we reported 10 new anticancer compounds (Vitamin E; Hexadecanoic acid; Stigmast-5-en-3-ol; Phytol,2-hexadecen-1-ol,3,7,11,15-tetramethyl; Squalene; Hexadecanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester; Oxime,methoxy-phenyl,methyl N-hydroxyben-zenecarboximidoate; Ergost-5-en-3-ol; 9,12- Octadecad-ienoic acid and Farnesol) from A. maurorum using three solvent, while the best effective solvent was petroluem ether. Therefore, we report that A. maurorum has great potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.

Pages 70-77 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/poj.12.01.19.pt1971


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