Articles

9(1) 2016 issue
 
January 2016 issue
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Plant Omics | January 2016
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Appraisal of in vitro drought stpress among three different cultivars of fig (Ficus carica L.) using RAPD and ISSR markers

Ehab Mohamed Rabei Metwali, Hemaid Ibrahim Ahemidan Soliman*, Saad Mohammed Howladar, Michael Paul Fuller, Hassan Saeed Al-Zahrani

Biological Science Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt
Plant Genetic Resources Department, Desert Research Center, El-Matariya 11753, Cairo, Egypt
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Albaha University, Albaha, Saudi Arabia
School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Environment, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK

Abstract
Response of three cultivars of fig (Ficus carica L.) to in vitro selection of drought tolerance was the main objective of this study. The effect of water stress induced by mannitol on growth water content, necrosis of in vitro cultures and regeneration was investigated on selected fig cultivars. The shoots of fig plants were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 2iP at different concentrations of mannitol (0.0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mM) under in-vitro culture conditions. The results showed that increasing mannitol concentration in the medium causes a gradual decrease in all growth parameters and plant regeneration efficiency. The analysis revealed three primers associated with drought tolerance which can be utilized in breeding programme via marker assisted selection and developing drought tolerant cultivars by genetic transformation. 

Pages 1-11 | Full Text PDF

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Identification of new molecular markers linked to maize stalk rot disease resistance (Fusarium moniliforme) in maize

Noura Salah, Sana I. Milad, Mohamed M. El- Rouby, Mohamed N. Barakat*

Biotechnology Laboratory, Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
Plant Production Department, College of Food Sciences and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
A segregating population (170 individual plants) from a cross between the resistant line Gm1021 and the susceptible line Gm1002 was made to identify molecular markers linked to maize stalk rot disease resistance. In total, 38 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, 25 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers, 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 8 STS primers combined with bulked segregant analysis were tested for polymorphism among parental genotypes and F2 population. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to Fusarium moniliforme was associated with 2 RAPD markers (OPA02 and Pr 11), 1 ISSR marker (AD8), 4 SSR markers (SSR93, SSR105, SSR225, and SSR337) and 1 STS marker (STS03) which explained 59.3 to 89.2 % of the phenotypic variation.


Pages 12-18 | Full Text PDF
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Evolution of aerenchyma formation in a maize breeding program

Nαdia Alves Campos*, Josι Donizeti Alves, Kamila Rezende Dαzio de Souza, Brenda Neves Porto, Marcelo Murad Magalhγes, Glacy Jaqueline da Silva, Luciano Vilela Paiva

Department of Biosystems, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Department of Biology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA, Brazil
Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Federal University of Pelotas, UFPel, Brazil

Abstract
We evaluated the expression levels of the superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase antioxidant genes and cell wall loosening (XET) enzyme in maize roots under flooding as well as associated expression with the initiation of aerenchyma formation, which is the most important plant adaptation to flooding. We collected data on ‘Saracura’ at the beginning of the breeding program (cycle 1), a time considered more sensitive to flooding, and during the last selection cycle (cycle 18), a time considered more resistant to flooding. Maize plants were flooded for 12 and 24h, and roots were collected for anatomic (aerenchyma density in the root cortex) and gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR. Our results showed that there was a proportional graded increase in aerenchyma formed in the root cortex with increased flooding time that was most pronounced during selection cycle 18.


Pages 19-25 | Full Text PDF
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Differential physiological responses of Col-0 and Cvi Arabidobsis thaliana seedlings to trehalose feeding

Mahnaz Aghdasi*, Nadia Rezayan, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour

Department of Biology, faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran

Abstract
Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) has been proposed as an important signaling molecule that controls plant growth and carbon allocation. To gain insight into natural variation in trehalose metabolism, 14-day-old seedlings from eight Arabidopsis thaliana accessions were raised on MS medium supplemented with or without 100 mM trehalose and then compared for some physiological and biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and antioxidant metabolism. Growth arrest occurred in Columbia (Col-0) and all other accessions, but seedlings from the Cape Verde islands (Cvi) accession were relatively resistant to trehalose. Trehalose feeding induced massive anthocyanin, soluble sugar and starch accumulation in Col-0 rather than Cvi cotyledons and the accumulated starch was localized in cotyledons. Trehalose feeding furthermore led to increase activity and transcript levels of trehalase in Col-0 plants while these remained unaltered in Cvi ones, indicating trehalose insensitivity of Cvi plants is not due to greater trehalase activity. Trehalose in addition, suppressed the expression of sucrose transporter (SUC), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and invertase (INV) genes in Col-0 seedlings whereas it increased the expression of SPS and INV genes in Cvi seedlings.

Pages 26-34 | Full Text PDF
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Saline sensitivity leads to oxidative stress and  increases the antioxidants in presence of proline and betaine in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred

Md. Motiar Rohman*, M. Z. A. Talukder, M. G. Hossain, M. S. Uddin, M. Amiruzzaman, A. Biswas, A. F. M. S. Ahsan, M. A. Z. Chowdhury

Molecular Breeding Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh
Crops Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh

Abstract
The oxidative stress, antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in two differently saline sensitive maize inbreds (i.e., CZ-27; tolerant and CZ-37; susceptible) in presence of proline and betaine were studied for better understanding of salinity tolerance mechanism. Five days old seedlings were imposed to 16 dSm-1 salinity for 10 days. Water content, chlorophyll (Chl), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, methylglyoxal (MG), lipoxigenase (LOX) activity, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and glyoxalases were investigated in fully expanded leaves. Salinity caused higher reduction in leaf water and chlorophyll content as well as increased in levels of superoxide (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), melondialdehyde (MDA), LOX and MG in both inbreds. However, the levels were higher in CZ-37 as compared to CZ-27. Proline and betaine treatments in salinity made significantly delay in loss of leaf water and breakdown of chlorophyll. The salinity caused more oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) as well as inhibited the synthesis of cysteine in CZ-37.

Pages 35-47 | Full Text PDF
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Algerian isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. as potential biological control against wilt pathogen (Verticillium dahliae)

Farida  Tihar-Benzina*, Fatma Sahir-Halouane, K. M. Hameed

University M’hamed Bougara, Laboratory of valorisation and conservation of biological resources, Street of independence 3500 Boumerdes, Algeria
Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA

Abstract
This study was carried out to identify indigenous fluorescent pseudomonads strains, with potential as biocontrol agents against the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of thirty nine isolates from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants growing near Bouira (Algeria) were characterised as fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.  by phenotypical methods. In dual culture, most of pseudomonads strains (95%) showed in vitro antagonistic activity against two isolates of V. dahliae (R1 and R2). The most active bacterial strains named T23, T27, T33, T34 and T49 were morphologically, biochemically and molecularly identified by partial 16r RNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas spp. The antagonistic activity of those isolates against R1 and R2 of V. dahlaie races varied with culture media. On King’s B medium, the isolates were much inhibitory to pathogen than in PDA, produced total inhibition (100%) of mycelium growth and abolished microsclerotia formation. These selected strains showed significant control of verticillium wilt of tomato under greenhouse conditions, by delaying the apparition of the first symptoms.

Pages 48-60 | Full Text PDF
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Physio-agronomic performance of kenaf as influenced by different carbon levels

Mohammad Delwar Hossain*, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin, Hamdan Jol, Hazandy Abdul Hamid

Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Land Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract
To determine the impact of different carbon levels on the physio-agronomic performance of kenaf, three kenaf varieties were grown on sandy soil in a field at Terengganu, Malaysia, in two growing seasons. Organic carbon at levels of 0, 10 and 20 t C ha-1 was applied to the experimental plots. The experiment was arranged using four replicates in a randomized complete block design. Basal diameter, plant height, leaf number, leaf area, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate were measured as determinants of growth and biomass production. Plant roots, stems and leaves were separated and biomass content and fibre yield were determined at the time of harvest.

Pages 61-72 | Full Text PDF
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Morpho-molecular characterization of putative interspecific crosses in black pepper (Piper nigrum L. and Piper colubrinum)

Ashok B. Jagtap*, R. Sujatha, Om Prakash Meena, P. A. Nazeem, S. Pathania

Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur-680656, Kerala, India
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India
College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Padanakkad, Kasaragod-671314, Kerala, India
Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India

Abstract
The objective of the present study was to establish the hybridity or otherwise of the six putative hybrids produced by separate interspecific hybridization programmes between a common male parent, viz., Piper colubrinum (2n=2x=26) and six genotypes of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) (2n=4x=52). Though the morphological and cytological features of the two parental species show drastic differences, the hybrids resembled their female parents with respect to morphological features only, except for the fruit setting character. In all the six putative hybrids, the fruit set was significantly low. Considering the heterozygous nature of the P. nigrum genotypes and the genetic difference between the parents, a true hybrid should show greater genetic diversity from both parents and it will be sterile due to triploidy.

Pages 73-80 | Full Text PDF
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Differential tolerance to high salt with regard to cell growth and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in calluses of the halophyte Suaeda maritima from Japan and Egypt

Elsayed Mohamed, Ryuya Matsuda, Ahmed A El-khatib, Katsuaki Takechi, Hiroyoshi Takano, Susumu Takio*

Center for Marine Environment Studies, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan
Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, 82524, Egypt
Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan

Abstract
To determine the mechanism of regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) isozymes in halophytes at the cellular level, we isolated calluses from Suaeda maritima plants native to Japan and Egypt. Calluses from Egyptian S. maritima could grow in a high salt medium (~400 mM NaCl), whereas Japanese S. maritima calluses could not. The expression characteristics of SOD isozyme genes encoding two CuZn-SOD proteins, two Mn-SOD proteins, and one Fe-SOD protein in the two callus lines were analyzed. All SOD isozyme genes expressed in leaves were also expressed in both callus lines grown in normal medium and their expression levels were not affected by high salt. In-gel SOD activity assay after native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that both callus lines possessed a CuZn-SOD and an Fe-SOD as major SOD isozymes in normal medium.


Pages 81-89 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data PDF
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Phylogenetic relationships, recombination analysis and genetic variability of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infecting tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Sayed Sartaj Sohrab*, Muhammad Yasir, Sherif Ali El-Kafrawy, Hassan S.M. Al-Zahrani, Magdi Ali Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed A. Bakhashwain

Special Infectious Agents Unit; King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University,  Post Box No, 80216, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Metrology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Department of Horticulture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Post Box No 800054, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
In this study, naturally infected tomato leaf samples were collected during field survey and causal virus was identified by PCR using tomato yellow leaf curl virus-specific primers and transmitted by whiteflies to healthy tomato seedlings. The full-length viral genome was amplified by rolling circle amplification technology while betasatellites from viral genome were amplified by PCR using universal betasatellites primers. The full-length viral genome (~2.7kb) and betasatellites (~1.4kb) were cloned and sequenced bi-directionally. The generated sequences were assembled and analyzed to find out the genetic variability by using bioinformatics tools and the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships with selected begomoviruses were analyzed. The complete viral genome sequences showed highest (99.5%) similarity with an isolate of Tomato Yellow leaf curl virus-Jizan 103 isolate103 and 92.8% similarity with Tomato Yellow leaf curl virus-Al-Qasim isolate while the lowest (71.6%) were found with Tomato Yellow leaf curl virus-Egypt isolate.


Pages 90-98 | Full Text PDF
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Monitoring gene expression pattern in somatic hybrid of Solanum tuberosum and S. pinnatisectum for late blight resistance using microarray analysis

Ritu Singh, Jagesh Kumar Tiwari*, Shashi Rawat, Vinay Sharma, Bir Pal Singh

Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh - 171 001, India
Banasthali University, Rajasthan - 304022, India


Abstract
Gene expression pattern was investigated in late blight resistant potato somatic hybrid P-7 and susceptible control C-13 by microarray. cDNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the leaf tissues collected at disease appearance stage (72 h of post-inoculation (hpi)) after challenge inoculation with P. infestans. A t-test analysis identified a total of 5,810 statistically significant genes (p = 0.05), of which 2,101 genes (= 2-fold) were up-regulated and 3,709 genes were down-regulated. Among the up-regulated 2101 genes, the GO (gene ontology) annotation of 320 up-regulated genes (= 10-fold) revealed that 66 genes were GO annotated with known PGSC gene description, whereas GO annotation was not found for remaining 254 genes. Further GO analysis showed that the 66 GO-annotated genes are involved in defence response, binding function, oxidation-reduction, photosynthesis, metabolic process, tRNA processing, protein phosphorylation and methylation.


Pages 99-105 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data PDF
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Effect of nano-silicon application on the expression of salt tolerance genes in germinating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings under salt stress

Zainab M. Almutairi

Biology Department, College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box: 83, Al-Kharj, 11940, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Nowadays, nano-silicon (N-Si) has been used to enhance seed germination, plant growth, and improvement of photosynthetic quantum under environmental stresses. In this study, we examined the effects of different doses of N-Si on the salt tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants during germination. The tomato seeds were treated with different doses of N-Si and were germinated under salt stress. The seed germination and seedling growth of tomato plants were significantly inhibited by salt stress. However, this inhibition was alleviated by the exposure to N-Si. The germination percentage and germination rate of tomato seeds and the root length and fresh weight of
tomato seedlings were increased after exposure to N-Si under NaCl stress. The expression profiles of salt stress genes were investigated with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Of the fourteen investigated salt stress genes, four genes, AREB, TAS14, NCED3 and CRK1, were upregulated, and six genes, RBOH1, APX2, MAPK2, ERF5, MAPK3 and DDF2, were downregulated with exposure to N-Si under salt stress. The gene expression patterns associated with exposure to N-Si suggested a potential involvement of N-Si in the plant's response to stress, an indication that N-Si might be useful to improve plants' tolerance of salinity.

Pages 106-114 | Full Text PDF

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