2(4) 2009 July issue
Influence of antibiotics on regeneration efficiency in tomato
Praveen Mamidala and Rama Swamy Nanna
The protocol has been developed for an efficient regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation using antibiotics (100-400 mg/l) in cotyledon explants of tomato cvPKM-1. Among the three antibiotics viz, Cefatoxime (Cef), Timentin (Tim) and Carbenicillin (Cb) used along with the shoots induction medium (SIM - 0.1 mg/l IAA + 2.0 mg/l BAP). The antibiotics Cb and Cef showed the profound effect on the suppression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens growth at minimum concentration (200 mg/l). Whereas, Tim had shown its effect at 400 mg/l concentration. 100% explants survival was observed in all the concentrations of Tim tested in comparison to other antibiotics Cb and Cef used. Enhancement of shoots induction efficiency was also found at 400 mg/l Tim. The present investigation reports the effectiveness of Tim for regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation in cultivated tomato cv PKM-1.
Key words: Tomato; Cotyledon; Carbenicillin; Cefatoxime; Timentin; Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Pages 135-140 Full Text PDF
Potential of Molecular Markers in Plant Biotechnology (Review article)
P. Kumar, V.K. Gupta, A.K. Misra, D. R. Modi and B. K. Pandey
During the last few decades, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in plant biotechnology and their genetics studies. There are different types of markers viz. morphological, biochemical and DNA based molecular markers. These DNA based markers are differentiates in two types first non PCR based (RFLP) and second is PCR based markers (RAPD, AFLP, SSR, SNP etc.), amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high degree of information provided by its large number of alleles per locus. Despite this, a new marker type, named SNP, for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, is now on the scene and has gained high popularity, even though it is only a bi-allelic type of marker. Day by day development of such a new and specific types of markers make their importance in understanding the genomic variability and the diversity between the same as well as different species of the plants. In this review, we will discuss about the biochemical and molecular markers their Advantages, disadvantages and the applications of the marker in comparison with other markers types.
Keywords: Molecular markers, plant biotechnology, genetic diversity, polymorphism, isozymes and polymerase chain reactions (PCR).
Pages 141-162 Full Text PDF
Antioxidant profile changes in leaf and root tissues of Withania somnifera Dunal
Cheruth Abdul Jaleel
An important herbal plant Withania somnifera was evaluated for its antioxidant potential changes in leaves and roots. The main antioxidant constituents Non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol and reduced glutathione) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) antioxidants were estimated from both leaves and roots. The analyses were carried out in the field-collected samples. It was found that plant contain a significant quantity of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in these organs. But, the quantity varies in both organs. The roots contain more amounts of these antioxidants than leaves. Here from this study, it can be concluded that, the root of Withania somnifera are good source of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant components.
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; medicinal herb; non-enzymatic antioxidants; traditional medicine; Withania somnifera.
Pages 163-168 Full Text PDF
Changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of Catharanthus roseus L. as a result of exogenous growth regulators
Cheruth Abdul Jaleel, Guixue Wang, Parvaiz Ahmad, Ikram-ul-Haq
In the present investigation, different plant growth regulators and retardants were used to analyse their effects on photosynthetic characteristics of common periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Family: Apocynaceae). The plant growth retardant used was paclobutrazol. The synthetic growth regulator used was gibberellic acid. The exogenously applied non-traditional growth regulator was an elicitor named Pseudomonas fluorescens. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that these growth retardant and regulators altered the photosynthetic characteristics of C. roseus to a great extent. These findings might have a great role in the ayurvedic or natural medicine, as more and more people became interested in traditional medicine, due to the secondary hazardous effects of most of the modern synthetic medicines.
Keywords: periwinkle, photosynthesis, growth regulators, growth retardants
Pages 169-174 Full Text PDF
Screening of banana bunchy top diseased plants: A way to control its spreading
Ikram-ul-Haq, M.U. Dahot, Saifullah Khan and Naheed Kousar
Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is a nano-viral banana disease, which has been reducing both vegetative and reproductive growth of banana. It is spreading with the passage of time but minimize-able, if detected earlier through ELISA and PCR. For the concerned matter, an economic protocol for ELISA has been established for both time and chemicals. During this study, twenty BBTV infected and non-infected (on the basis of morphological symptoms) samples [Dwarf Cavendish banana cv. Sindhri banana or Basrai (AAA)] were collected from old (~10 years) and new (less than 4 years) eighteen different banana farms. Each was cultured under in-vitro conditions. After 3-sub-culturings, they were grown in the wire-house. When the age of the growing plants was reached to almost 3-months than presence of BBTV was detected through ELISA and PCR. They were remained infected even after micro-propagation. The BBTV severity was observed to be variable from farm to farm, which was four to six-folds higher in old banana farms than new farms. The causal source of variation may be the cultivation of infected banana nursery from the developed (old) to new farms. The infection was observed similar in each even after their micro-propagation. One possibility is present to control the spreading of this pathogen; by using BBTV free banana nursery could be helpful.
Pages 175-180 Full Text PDF
July 2009 issue
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