PLANT OMICs

Encompassing plant and animal OMICs


The variation of volatile compounds emitted from aromatic orchid (Phalaenopsis bellina) at different timing and flowering stages

Ahmad Asnawi Mus, Jualang Azlan Gansau, Vijay Subbiah Kumar, Nor Azizun Rusdi*

Unit for Orchid Studies, Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, UMS Road, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, UMS Road, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, UMS Road, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


Abstract
Phalaenopsis bellina, is an orchid widely known for their distinctive fragrance. Of late, fragrant orchids are getting more attention from Orchid breeders for their horticultural market value. Although volatile compounds have been identified in several orchid species, the floral scent emission of P. bellina is far from understood. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the influence of different timing and floral development stages on the volatile emissions from P. bellina flowers using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatile compound was extracted during morning and afternoon sessions from three different floral developmental stages. The volatile compounds emitted from flowers from two different sessions were trapped with SPME fiber for 30 minutes before directly injected into GC-MS for identification. Results showed that approximately 79 volatile compounds were identified, with the terpenoid presented as the major compound class. P. bellina had the highest number of volatiles during the morning and full bloom (41), with 29.82% monoterpene and 23.33% sesquiterpenes accounted in total. α-farnesene (19.56%) was abundance during morning emission and remains as the highest volatile in afternoon emission (44.08%), even higher when compared to morning emission. However, a decrease in the volatile compound was observed in afternoon emission, in which only 34 volatile compounds detected. Meanwhile, partial bloom developmental stage revealed linalool as the major terpenoid volatile compounds (25.89%), with only 20 volatile compounds recorded. On the other hand, no volatile compounds were recorded and profiled from flower bud stage. The establishment of a floral scent study provides a brief overview of the regulation of fragrance in P. bellina, which can be continued through gene isolation or fragrance-related enzymes study. This information will provide necessary information on orchid floral scent research that useful in boosting horticultural trade of the scented orchids and their function in pollination ecology study.

Pages 78-85 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/POJ.13.02.20.2271
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Genetic diversity of Cucurbita moschata inbred lines selected from six different populations using HFO-TAG markers


Adel Ahmed Elshafei*, Abdullah Abdulrahman Alsadon, Abdullah Abdulaziz Aldoss, Talal Khaled Alateeq, Talaat Hassan Solieman, Abdullah Anwar Ibrahim

Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre (NRC), El-Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
This study evaluated the genetic diversity among 18 inbred lines of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) using HFO-TAG (high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene) markers. The inbred lines were selected from six different populations in Saudi Arabia and Egypt according to genetic distance and population origin. A total of 132 alleles were detected. Sixteen HFO-TAG markers averaged 8.25 alleles per primer with 125 alleles showing polymorphisms that averaged 7.81 alleles per primer. A cluster analysis of the means of the HFO-TAG data created three groups with similarity coefficients between 0.34 and 0.74. In general, the 18 inbred lines were separated according to pedigree and population origin. Hybrids from the chosen inbred lines, S1 L-1 with E L-2, S1 L-2 with E L-3, and S1 L-3 with E L-1, may be the basis for improved hybridization programs and can be used in future hybridization program.


Pages 86-93 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/POJ.13.02.20.2520
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Metabolites changes after pre-bloom gibberellic acid (GA3) application for inducing seedless grape

Sung Min Jung*, Youn Young Hur

Fruit Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Wanju, 55365, Korea

Abstract
Gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment is a useful method for inducing seedless grape berries in the seeded grape bunch before flowering. In this work, we applied 100 ppm of GA3 on ‘Tamnara’ grape flower cluster at 14 days before flowering to find metabolites significantly related to seedlessness. Three bunches of grape flower samples were collected at nine different stages (Day before full bloom; DBF13, 10, 7, 5, 2, flowering (0) and day after full bloom; DAF 2, 5, 9). Metabolites of each collected sample were analyzed using GC-MS with derivatization method (MSTFA). Metabolite contents of GA3 treatment flower were compared with non-treated controls in all stages and analyzed using Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). As a result, five sampling times (DBF 13, 10, 2, 0, DAF 9) showed significance differences using GA3 treatments. Total of 13 metabolites were recognized to relate to differences in five specific sampling times and mainly affected the initial stages (DBF 13 and 10). Tartaric acid, D-glucose, phosphoric acid, and D-mannose, inositol were increased by GA3 treatment at the early-flower developing stage. Dehydroascorbic acid, caffeic acid, citric acid, and gluconic acid were mainly increased at the time of GA3 treatment but decreased approaching full bloom. All stages of GA3 treatment, L-glutamine, L-serine, and D-allose was decreased, but fructose increased. In particular, the metabolite contents before GA3 treatment provides new clues on the role of GA3 in the early stage of grape berry development.


Pages 94-103 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/POJ.13.02.20.2696
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Molecular characterization of new Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) genotypes

Abdulrahman Al-Soqeer, Soleman M. Al-Otayk, Mohamed I. Motawei*

Department of Plant Production & Protection, College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, P.O. Box 6622, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. Link) is an African agamospermous grass that has been widely introduced into arid regions of the world to improve rangelands for cattle production and as a result, it has invaded adjacent habitats. Cenchrus ciliaris is apomictic, a condition that is normally associated with low genetic variation within populations, but even moderate levels of genetic variation among populations could account for differences in invasiveness. We used Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers (ISSRs) to examine genetic variation among buffelgrass genotypes collected from nine different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia, and three introduced cultivars. The genetic similarity coefficients among the twelve buffelgrass genotypes ranged from 0.66 to 0.94. Maximum similarity was observed between local populations. Introduced cultivars 'Biloela', 'Gayndah' and 'USA' were quite distinct from local populations. The dendogram constructed with UPGMA analysis revealed three clusters. In general, the study revealed the presence of considerable genetic diversity that could be used for further analysis for specific traits of interest.


Pages 104-107 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/POJ.13.02.20.3000